Defect Life Cycle/BugLife Cycle/Defect Management

Simple Wikipedia definition of Bug is:“A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result. Bugs arise from mistakes and errors, made by people, in either a program’s source code or its design.”
Defect/bug life cycleis a process which a defect goes through during its lifetime. It starts when defect is found and ends when a defect is closed, after ensuring it’s not reproduced. The Life cycle varies from organization to organization and is governed by the software testing process the organization or project follows and/or the Defect tracking tool being used.
In general, life cycle of a defect is depicted by following steps/status figure.

Description of Stages:
New State:
When the defect is found and submitted, New status is automatically assigned to it.

Rejected: A quality assurance or project manager reviews the defect and decides whether or not to repair the defect. If the defect is refused, Rejected status is assigned to the defect

Open: If the defect is accepted for repair, quality assurance or project manager change the status to Open and assign it to development team.

Deferred: The development team reviews the defect and decides to fix the defect in current fix or in some other fix release. If defect is decided not to be fixed in current release, deferred status is assigned to it.

Fixed: The development teams repairs the defect and change its status to fixed. They then assign the defect back to quality assurance or project manager.

Retest: After the defect is fixed, the quality assurance or project manager change the status of defect to Retest and assigns the defect to tester.

Reopen: The testers retest the defect and see if it has been repaired or not. If the bug still exists, it is again changed to Reopen status. The defect the again passes through fixed, and retest status until it has been fixed .

Closed: If the defect is found repaired after retest, the quality assurance or project manager changes the defect to Closed.

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